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Towards a New Regional Order in South Asia

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1. Introduction

2. The Regional Setting: constraints and characteristics

2.1. Structural Constraints

2.2. The Geo-Political Dimension

2.3. Economic Factors

3. Inter-Governmental Cooperation

3.1. The Cultural Approach

3.2. The Functional Approach

3.3. The Political Approach

3.3.1. Cessation of Interventionary Operations

3.3.2. Confidence Building Measures

3.3.3. Arms control and Weapons Deployment

3.3.4. Resolution of Inter-State Conflicts

3.4. Outlook

4. Inter-People’s Cooperation

4.1. A Multicultural Community

4.2. Towards a People’s Security Policy

4.3. Power to the People

4.3.1. Scholar Diplomacy

4.3.2. Religion in Politics

4.3.3. Media Dialogue

4.4. Outlook

5. Inter-Institutional Cooperation

5.1. Towards a Parliament for South Asia

5.2. Outlook

6. Costs/Benefits of Cooperation

7. Conclusions

Documents

1. The Indus Waters Treaty, 19 September 1960

2. Tashkent Declaration of India (Prime Minister

Lai Bahadur Shastri) and Pakistan (President Ayub Khan), 10 January 1966

3. Simla Agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi,

and President of Pakistan, Z. A. Bhutto, 3 July 1972.

4. Charter of the South Asian Association for

Regional Cooperation, 8 December 1985

5. Speech Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of India at Qinghua University, Beijing, 21 December 1988

6. Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against nuclear installations and facilities, 31 December 1988

7. Agreement between India and Pakistan on prevention of air space violations and for permitting over flights

and landings by military aircraft, 6 April 1991

8. Agreement Between India and Pakistan on the Advance Notice of Military Exercises, 6 April 1991

9. Resolution 1172 on International Peace and Security adopted by the Security Council at its 3,890th meeting

on 6 June 1998

10. Convention against Nuclear Weapons adopted at Pearey Lai Bhawan, New Delhi, 9 June 1998
11. The Lahore Declaration, 21 February 1999 196

12. India-Pakistan Joint Statement issued after meeting between the Indian and Pakistani Forign Ministers on the sidelines of SAARC, Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka,

19 March 1999

13. SAARC Economic Indicators 1999

14. Draft Indian Nuclear Doctrine: released by Advisory Board on Indian Nuclear Doctrine, 17 August 1999

15. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Heads of State or Government. Eleventh Meeting. Kathmandu (Nepal), 4-6 January 2002 209

16. Alma-Ata Act, 4 June 2002

17. Speech of President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan to the 57th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 12 September 2002 236

18. Speech of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee of India to the 57th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 13 September 2002 241

19. Proposal for a South Asian Charter for Human Rights (Professor Ishtiaq Ahmed, Stockholm University,

23 June 2002)

20. The SAARCLAW Kathmandu Declaration,

24 September 2000

Description

Regional Order in South Asia

At the backdrop of the relationship crisis between India and Pakistan that started in December 2001, and is still continuing unresolved with such magnitude and potential world significance, this book is particularly timely. The author considers the various issues which contribute to peace, and less of it in South Asia. The first is that of the nuclear threat posed by each side, significant and chilling in its potential ramifications for the rest of the world. Water has been another important factor in Indo-Pak and Indo Bangladesh relations.

The Simla Agreement of 2 July 1972 (Document Three) is a typical example of the bilateral approach, and the one, which is now more commonly referred to by India as the determining precedent. In this study, Ross Masood gives considerable attention to the prospects for multilateral advances in the Indian sub-continent, in particular following the establishment of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation on 8 December 1985.

What is required by and for the peoples of South Asia for peace and harmony? Perhaps the SAARC Declaration of January 2002, if it becomes more than mere words, may provide a way forward. But much else is needed. It is for this reason that the many positive suggestions and proposals (such as for a SAARC Regional Parliament, on the model of the European Parliament) in the study by Ross Masood deserve a wide audience.

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